# 1 June 14, 2021

**Articles**1.

**Roman G. Bolbakov**

Construction and Design of Objects on the Surface of Planets

The article examines the problem of designing structures on planets taking into account the curvature of the planet's surface. The approach of comparative planetology is used, which consists in the possibility of transferring the methods of terrestrial technologies to other planets. The difference between the planetocentric and topocentric coordinate systems is shown. The main problem of determining the altitude on the planets is revealed. It consists in a double way of determining the height. The first way is related to vertical measurements. The second method involves measuring the height between the surfaces of the planet model. Regardless of this problem, the problem of contradiction between the designs of structures in the Cartesian coordinate system and their implementation in the curvilinear system associated with the planet's surface has been identified. This contradiction leads to the fact that rectangular structures on the surface of the planet become trapezoidal. This situation is due to the fact that when designing verticals are considered as parallel lines, but in reality they are not. The verticals are directed normal to the surface and intersect at the planet's center of mass. The article gives an assessment of the admissibility of using the Cartesian system on the surface of different planets. The article gives an estimate of the discrepancy for different planets between the horizontal chord and the arc corresponding to the real curvature of the planet.

2. *Russian Journal of Astrophysical Research. Series A. 2021. 7(1): 3-12.***Abstract:**

The article examines the problem of designing structures on planets taking into account the curvature of the planet's surface. The approach of comparative planetology is used, which consists in the possibility of transferring the methods of terrestrial technologies to other planets. The difference between the planetocentric and topocentric coordinate systems is shown. The main problem of determining the altitude on the planets is revealed. It consists in a double way of determining the height. The first way is related to vertical measurements. The second method involves measuring the height between the surfaces of the planet model. Regardless of this problem, the problem of contradiction between the designs of structures in the Cartesian coordinate system and their implementation in the curvilinear system associated with the planet's surface has been identified. This contradiction leads to the fact that rectangular structures on the surface of the planet become trapezoidal. This situation is due to the fact that when designing verticals are considered as parallel lines, but in reality they are not. The verticals are directed normal to the surface and intersect at the planet's center of mass. The article gives an assessment of the admissibility of using the Cartesian system on the surface of different planets. The article gives an estimate of the discrepancy for different planets between the horizontal chord and the arc corresponding to the real curvature of the planet.

**Gospodinov Slaveyko Gospodinov**

Determination of the Spatial Coordinates of the Planet Using One Camera

The article proposes a method for determining the coordinates of points on the planet's surface using a single camera. The technique consists of two parts. The first part describes the process of shooting a rotating body in terrestrial conditions from a stationary camera. The principle of relativity of motion allows you to model this situation as a situation of moving the camera with a stationary object. This idea is used when photographing the surface of a planet from a space carrier or spacecraft. For this case, the rotation of the planet and the movement of the spacecraft can be reduced to one relative motion of the spacecraft. The solution of the problem uses the formulas of connection between the coordinates of the image and the points of the terrain, which are used in aerial photography. The specificity of satellite imagery makes it possible to simplify photogrammetric dependencies and obtain new formulas for linking the coordinates of the image and the terrain. Finding the angle of the camera from the second point becomes a problem. This problem is solved by the ballistic method. It is proposed to measure the coordinates of the auxiliary point approximately in the middle of the trajectory section between the survey points using inertial devices. Three points make it possible to determine the motion curve of the spacecraft and determine the derivatives at the survey points. The angle of tilt of the camera at the second point of the survey is determined by the difference in the angles of the derivatives at the points of the photograph or the difference in the angles of the normal at these points. The methodology and calculation formulas allow calculating the coordinates of a point on the planet's surface in a conventional coordinate system associated with the orbit of the spacecraft.

3. *Russian Journal of Astrophysical Research. Series A. 2021. 7(1): 13-19.***Abstract:**

The article proposes a method for determining the coordinates of points on the planet's surface using a single camera. The technique consists of two parts. The first part describes the process of shooting a rotating body in terrestrial conditions from a stationary camera. The principle of relativity of motion allows you to model this situation as a situation of moving the camera with a stationary object. This idea is used when photographing the surface of a planet from a space carrier or spacecraft. For this case, the rotation of the planet and the movement of the spacecraft can be reduced to one relative motion of the spacecraft. The solution of the problem uses the formulas of connection between the coordinates of the image and the points of the terrain, which are used in aerial photography. The specificity of satellite imagery makes it possible to simplify photogrammetric dependencies and obtain new formulas for linking the coordinates of the image and the terrain. Finding the angle of the camera from the second point becomes a problem. This problem is solved by the ballistic method. It is proposed to measure the coordinates of the auxiliary point approximately in the middle of the trajectory section between the survey points using inertial devices. Three points make it possible to determine the motion curve of the spacecraft and determine the derivatives at the survey points. The angle of tilt of the camera at the second point of the survey is determined by the difference in the angles of the derivatives at the points of the photograph or the difference in the angles of the normal at these points. The methodology and calculation formulas allow calculating the coordinates of a point on the planet's surface in a conventional coordinate system associated with the orbit of the spacecraft.

**Takaaki Musha, Mario J. Pinheiro**

The Gravitational Force Generated by an Interaction between Matter and the ZPF field in the Vacuum, and the Property of a Superfluid Vacuum

Jordan-Mbeutchou proposed a model for Newtonian gravity by assuming that space is filled with an ether fluid. But the existence of ether (or aether) in space was denied by the experimental investigation. Contrary to their theory, a new model of gravitation is proposed based on the interaction between matter and the ZPF field in a vacuum. Puthoff proposed a gravitation mechanism that gravitational force is an induced effect associated with ZPF of the vacuum in much the same manner as the van der Waals and Casimir forces. But his theory was not accepted by the science community. Instead of his theory, we consider that space is filled with an electromagnetic fluid consisting of ZPF energy, which is a fluctuation of zero-point energy in the vacuum. From which, it is seen that gravitational force is created by an interaction between the matter and ZPF field in the vacuum. From this theory, the gravitational waves will be radiated as a longitudinal wave which is faster than the light speed. In this context, a toy model of a moving body (or a spacecraft) flowing across a superfluid vacuum presents the possibility to be accelerated beyond any limiting speed and disengaged from friction. This proposed model points to the potentiality to use concepts from a superfluid representation of the universe to devise a process of space propulsion distinct from the ones based on general relativity theory.

4. *Russian Journal of Astrophysical Research. Series A. 2021. 7(1): 20-27.***Abstract:**

Jordan-Mbeutchou proposed a model for Newtonian gravity by assuming that space is filled with an ether fluid. But the existence of ether (or aether) in space was denied by the experimental investigation. Contrary to their theory, a new model of gravitation is proposed based on the interaction between matter and the ZPF field in a vacuum. Puthoff proposed a gravitation mechanism that gravitational force is an induced effect associated with ZPF of the vacuum in much the same manner as the van der Waals and Casimir forces. But his theory was not accepted by the science community. Instead of his theory, we consider that space is filled with an electromagnetic fluid consisting of ZPF energy, which is a fluctuation of zero-point energy in the vacuum. From which, it is seen that gravitational force is created by an interaction between the matter and ZPF field in the vacuum. From this theory, the gravitational waves will be radiated as a longitudinal wave which is faster than the light speed. In this context, a toy model of a moving body (or a spacecraft) flowing across a superfluid vacuum presents the possibility to be accelerated beyond any limiting speed and disengaged from friction. This proposed model points to the potentiality to use concepts from a superfluid representation of the universe to devise a process of space propulsion distinct from the ones based on general relativity theory.

**Viktor P. Savinych**

Determination of the Linear Parameters of the Planet by Measuring the Angular Diameter

The article proposes a technique for determining the linear diameter of a planet by measuring the angular diameters of the planet. Ballistic characteristics of spacecraft motion and phase angle change are used as additional characteristics. The article reflects the general problem of astronomy, space geoinformatics and geodetic astronomy – the determination of linear characteristics through angular measurements. It is recommended to use the concept and model of the information situation in private observations of space bodies. The article offers two options for determining the planet's diameter by angular measurements. The first option is called normal. It describes the situation of a spacecraft moving along a straight line connecting the observation point with the center of the planet. He describes the situation of displacement of the comic apparatus only vertically. The second option for determining the diameter of the planet is called oblique. He describes the situation of displacement of the comic apparatus vertically and horizontally relative to the center of the planet. To solve the problem in the second case, it is recommended to use a change in the phase angle.

5. *Russian Journal of Astrophysical Research. Series A. 2021. 7(1): 28-34.***Abstract:**

The article proposes a technique for determining the linear diameter of a planet by measuring the angular diameters of the planet. Ballistic characteristics of spacecraft motion and phase angle change are used as additional characteristics. The article reflects the general problem of astronomy, space geoinformatics and geodetic astronomy – the determination of linear characteristics through angular measurements. It is recommended to use the concept and model of the information situation in private observations of space bodies. The article offers two options for determining the planet's diameter by angular measurements. The first option is called normal. It describes the situation of a spacecraft moving along a straight line connecting the observation point with the center of the planet. He describes the situation of displacement of the comic apparatus only vertically. The second option for determining the diameter of the planet is called oblique. He describes the situation of displacement of the comic apparatus vertically and horizontally relative to the center of the planet. To solve the problem in the second case, it is recommended to use a change in the phase angle.

**Viktor Ya. Tsvetkov**

Angular Measurements in Space Geoinformatics

The article explores the application of angular measurements in space geoinformatics. The difference between space geoinformatics and terrestrial geoinformatics is shown. The difference between terrestrial geodata and space geodata is shown. Space geoinformatics uses angular measurements more often than terrestrial geoinformatics. The article introduces the concept of the angular diameter of a planet. The relationship between the angular diameter of the planet and the linear diameter of the planet is shown. The article provides visual examples of the angular diameters for the Earth and the Moon at different distances. The calculation of the linear diameter of the planet with a correction for the radius of the planet from altimetric measurements of the planet's surface is presented. The article gives a method for determining the distance to the planet's surface by angular measurements using the trigonometric parallax method.

6. *Russian Journal of Astrophysical Research. Series A. 2021. 7(1): 35-42.***Abstract:**

The article explores the application of angular measurements in space geoinformatics. The difference between space geoinformatics and terrestrial geoinformatics is shown. The difference between terrestrial geodata and space geodata is shown. Space geoinformatics uses angular measurements more often than terrestrial geoinformatics. The article introduces the concept of the angular diameter of a planet. The relationship between the angular diameter of the planet and the linear diameter of the planet is shown. The article provides visual examples of the angular diameters for the Earth and the Moon at different distances. The calculation of the linear diameter of the planet with a correction for the radius of the planet from altimetric measurements of the planet's surface is presented. The article gives a method for determining the distance to the planet's surface by angular measurements using the trigonometric parallax method.

**Alexey M. Tyagunov, Viktor Ya. Tsvetkov**

Logic of Space Observations

The article introduces a new concept of the logic of space observations. Space observation logic is interpreted as a synthesis of space logic and space exploration. The article shows and proves that space images show not the real hemisphere of the planet, but its smaller part. The article introduces new concepts: the apparent diameter of the planet and the "spherical shadow" of the planet. Formulas are given for calculating the real diameter from the "apparent diameter" of the planet. Formulas are given for calculating the "spherical shadow" in the center plane of the planet. The article analyzes the dimensions of the spherical segment on the surface of the planet, which is the closest to the observation point. This segment is shown with exaggeration in satellite images. The article provides working formulas for calculating the real dimensions of a spherical segment. On the basis of the research carried out, the logical rules of the logic of space observations are introduced. The article states that the logic of space observations can be a section of space geoinformatics and a section of spatial logic.

7. *Russian Journal of Astrophysical Research. Series A. 2021. 7(1): 43-48.***Abstract:**

The article introduces a new concept of the logic of space observations. Space observation logic is interpreted as a synthesis of space logic and space exploration. The article shows and proves that space images show not the real hemisphere of the planet, but its smaller part. The article introduces new concepts: the apparent diameter of the planet and the "spherical shadow" of the planet. Formulas are given for calculating the real diameter from the "apparent diameter" of the planet. Formulas are given for calculating the "spherical shadow" in the center plane of the planet. The article analyzes the dimensions of the spherical segment on the surface of the planet, which is the closest to the observation point. This segment is shown with exaggeration in satellite images. The article provides working formulas for calculating the real dimensions of a spherical segment. On the basis of the research carried out, the logical rules of the logic of space observations are introduced. The article states that the logic of space observations can be a section of space geoinformatics and a section of spatial logic.

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