Abstract: The article analyzes the evolution of geodetic astronomy over the past 120 years. Initially, it was formed on the basis of the transfer of measurement methods and information processing from geodesy to the field of astronomy. Currently, geodetic astronomy is closely related to space geoinformatics, comparative planetology and space geodesy. Currently, comparative planetary science has begun to use more measuring methods and methods of comparative analysis. Measuring and comparison methods link geodetic astronomy and comparative planetary science. Advanced methods of geodetic measurements link space geodesy and geodetic astronomy. The principles of technology integration and data integration from space geoinformatics have been transferred to the field of geodetic astronomy. Common to space geodesy, space geoinformatics, comparative planetology and geodetic astronomy is the trend towards using angular measurements and a small number of linear measurements. Common to these sciences is the study of spatial relationships on Earth and in space. What they have in common is the use of advances in computing technology to process observations and measurements. There were described four celestial spheres, which are used in geodetic astronomy. The basic coordinate systems used in geodetic astronomy are described. Methods for ensuring the uniformity of time measurements in geodetic astronomy are described. The article reveals the content of geodetic astronomy through the main directions of its application. The features of astronomical definitions characteristic of geodetic astronomy are described. The evolution of geodesic astronomy has led to the fact that its modern content is significantly different from its original content.
Abstract: The article discusses the development of space monitoring. It is shown that space monitoring is based on the integration of methods of terrestrial monitoring and the integration of earth sciences into space research. The software can be extended to outer space. Space monitoring uses remote sensing technology and instrumental visual observations. Space monitoring is greatly influenced by: space geodesy, geodetic astronomy, comparative planetology, space geoinformatics and the use of systems analysis in space research. A necessary factor in modern space monitoring is the use of different types of modeling. The article gives the systematics of space monitoring carried out in different aspects. Space monitoring has two directions. The first group is aimed at exploring extraterrestrial space. The second group aims to support the exploration of the Earth from space and a portion of near-Earth space. The article introduces a new term "information monitoring situation". The article shows the delineation of the scope of application of geoinformatics and space geoinformatics. The article reveals the content of outer space as objects of space monitoring research. The difference between sublunary and for the lunar spaces is shown in the aspect of meteorite hazard. The article reveals the content of the coordinate support of space monitoring. Space monitoring uses: galactic, heliocentric, geocentric and topocentric systems. The content of these systems is revealed. The difference between the galactic latitude and longitude and the heliocentric one is shown. The features of determining the position of space objects in different coordinate systems are noted and recommendations are given on the use of these coordinate systems.
Abstract: The author published a paper on the gravitational force generated by an interaction between matter and the ZPF field in the vacuum. This paper shows a new model of gravitation which is based on the interaction between matter and the ZPF field in a vacuum. From the equation of quantum electrodynamics, it can be derived that a gravity constant is not a constant but it can be decreased by the strong electromagnetic field. From this result, it can be seen that the celestial body with a high intensity electromagnetic field has a gravitational force which is different from the celestial body with no electromagnetic field. If the cutoff frequency of the zero point field is not so high as the Plank frequency, the weight of the material will be decreased by applying extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation.
Abstract: This paper presents a doctrine analysis established in the criminal law – Actio Libera in Causa – i.e. “action free in its cause”, namely against the background of “Ethics of authenticity” by Charles Taylor, philosopher of politics, the conception “unfree in action” is reinterpreted.
The leitmotif of the paper is the idea that events shall fit the conceptions in the normative dimension and not concepts with the events, which means the reality in itself is beyond the value assessment, moreover, it can be neglected for normative standardization of events. For defining the social organization criteria, the initial point is not the ideal of truth in itself, but a substantiated model of balance of interests in the form of so-called “agreed truth”. Hence the need to subordinate the events to concepts is the core point in analyzing “action free in its cause”.
Abstract: The article examines the system of two bodies "Earth Moon". It is shown that, like any system of physical bodies, this system has a common center of mass or barium center. The Earth and the Moon revolve around the barycenter. The incorrectness of the statement that the Moon revolves around the Earth is noted. The moon revolves around the common center of mass of the system. which is displaced with respect to the center of mass of the Earth, but is located in the body of the Earth. The parameters of the bodies' orbits in the Earth-Moon system are estimated. It is hypothesized that the ebb and flow occur due to the daily rotation of the Earth and the displacement of the center of the water mass relative to the barycenter. The phenomenon of libration points in the Earth-Moon system is described. Stable and non-stable libration points are described. Calculations of libration points in the Earth-Moon system and the associated Sun-Earth system have been carried out. The expediency of using libration points for the construction of space stations is noted. It is hypothesized that the libration points of the Sun-Earth system can contribute to the formation of debris rings in near-Earth space.
Abstract: The article examines the photogrammetric method for determining the characteristics of a moving body in space research. The object of research is comets. The method belongs to the field of space photogrammetry and space geoinformatics. A comet is considered as a moving body, but the technique can be used to track meteorites and other small celestial bodies. Stroboscopic shooting is proposed as a method of observation and measurement. A simple stroboscope in the form of a circle with a circular hole at the edge is proposed. Stroboscopic shooting allows not only photographing sections of the trajectory, but also linking them to time. Stroboscopic shooting allows you to change two parameters: shooting frequency and exposure time. These parameters are selected for the speed of the moving object and its distance from the shooting point. The basic diagram of stroboscopic shooting is described. Three qualitatively different sections of the trajectory of a moving object, which are obtained during stroboscopic shooting, are described. The plots characterize the approach of the subject to the shooting point. The most informative is the second section of the trajectory, which corresponds to the middle of the trajectory. A schematic diagram of photographing a moving object is described. Estimation formulas for determining the velocity of a space body are given. A practical example of shooting with an open shutter and using a stroboscope is given. The method allows one to study the dynamics of an object's movement, including its destruction or collision with another object. The method can be applied to survey ground objects, for example, aircraft or missiles of any range.
Abstract: The article relates to the field of space geoinformatics and comparative planetology. The difference between space geoinformatics and terrestrial geoinformatics is shown. The great connection of space geoinformatics with geometry is noted in comparison with terrestrial geoinformatics. The most common methods of planetary exploration are space imagery and radar sensing. Laser sensing is mainly used for ranging only. The article proposes to use laser rangefinders for a new purpose. The article proposes a new method for measuring coordinates on the planet's surface, called Trinitarian. The technique allows, on the basis of measuring the distance to a point, to determine two more of its coordinates. The technique is applicable when the spacecraft moves in the gravitational field of the planet as an artificial satellite. The coordinates are called conditional because they are not measured in the coordinate system of the planet's surface or in the system of its center of mass, but in the coordinate system associated with the trajectory of the spacecraft. An analogy between this technique and the measurement of coordinates using global navigation satellite systems is shown. Coordinates are measured by measuring the range from two points of the spacecraft trajectory and measuring the baseline on the trajectory between the observation points. Calculation formulas are given and errors are analyzed. The relativity of coordinates is that the technique allows you to measure only two coordinates out of three. The technique is compared with the terrestrial analogue of the global navigation satellite system. The similarities and differences between the proposed Trinitarian methodology and the existing global navigation satellite system are shown. Further improvement of the methodology is proposed.